The outdoor exposure is spread on the area of 1,5 hectares and during one day in the botanic garden you can travel almost all around the world. As well as the greenhouse exposure the whole area is divided to the individual regions on the Earth from the geographic point of view.
Mexico is the most biologically diverse country of the world. Mexican vegetation is formed by dry shrubbery and forests with high representation of cacti (Cactaceae) in the dry and warm areas. The agave genud (Agave) has a development centre here and in the vegetation there are plants from the composite family (Asteraceae) abundantly scattered – tagetes (Tagetes) and other known genera (sunflower – Helianthus, dahlia – Dahlia, cosmos – Cosmos, zinnia – Zinnia). Also the sage genus (Salvia) has rich representation. In the exposure you can admire frost-proof yucca (Yucca) which bloom at the beginning of summer as well as prickly pear (Opuntia phaecantha). Today common red peppers, corn and tomatoes also come from Mexico.
The South American state of Chile stretching 4 500 km along the Pacific Ocean coast from the borders with Peru and Bolivia to Tierra del Fuego (which it shares with Argentina), is extremely variegated in vegetation. In the north-west there is the driest place of the world – Atacama Desert. In several places there is only 2 mm precipitation a year, anywhere else even less and heavy rains come about once in twelve years. Bromeliads (Bromeliaceae) are typical for all South America. Here growing Puya berteroniana reaches three meters of height in blossom and from thirty Chilean bromeliads it belongs to the biggest ones. High grasses (Cortaderia) are dominant related to rare humid places. Shrubby Senna, succulent Cistanthe, cacti, sorrels and Nolana belong to well represented genera.
Foothills of the Andes in Peru and Argentina could be characterized by more humid climate which suits to another composition of plants than you find in the exposure of Atacama Desert. Several smaller species of plants are annual, most of them are perennial. Lady´s purse (Calceolaria) grows in wet crevices decorating the exposure with its typical blossoms according to which the genus got its Czech name. The others plants are pale yellow-eyed grass (Sisyrinchium) which are relative to the visitors well known irises or loasa (Loasa) with stinging hair on the stem and leaves.
Capensis or Cape plat kingdom is located in the south of South African Republic. The flora is very rich and 9 000 species of plants with 69% endemism occur in a small area (defined by the surrounding mountains from the inland). The whole region is characterised by Mediterranean type of climate with wet and mild winters and dry warm summers. Fynbos created by evergreen scrub is a typical vegetation cover. Renosterveld is another vegetation type where composite plants (Asteraceae) dominate and succulents from Aizoaceae family are represented more often. Aloe is symptomatic for dry regions so called Karoo which have the centre of diversity in South Africa. Mountain steppe areas of Dragon Mountains in the South African Republic and Lesotho follow up on the Cape kingdom.
Mediterranean defines the area around the Mediterranean Sea. Mild winters and hot dry summers are typical. The basis of the Mediterranean vegetation is created by hardwood trees (mainly bushes, so called macchie). Lamiaceae is a typical family – who would not know lavender (Lavandula), sage (Salvia), thyme (Thymus) and other plants containing essential oils. Bulbs are another typical component surviving hot Mediterranean summers drawn underground, the blossoms of which occur in spring or autumn.
Drier areas of North America in California are represented by a flowerbed surrounding the central lawn. Various grasses (Poaceae) are a dominant creating prairies and Aseraceae grown with pleasure as perennials – rudbeckia, echinacea, zinnia or coreopsis.
Acid-loving and predominantly moisture-loving flora of North America is represented by the peat bog and heath section. Carnivorous sarracenia (Sarracenia) grow in a small peat bog which catches insect prey in their ingenious traps to improve in very little usable territory. The whole biotope is supplemented with Ericaceae plants (Ericaceae) – for example cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon).
Shadow-loving North American plants creating undergrowth of deciduous forests may be found in the section of forest plants.
Various departments in the outdoor exposure are devoted to Asian plants. Arid and thermophilic plants are grown in the section of south-western Asia. The plants with oceanic tendency grow close to water where Hemerocallis blossom in June to which separated section close to arboretum is devoted. Forest plants are planted under the grown up trees lining the garden area. Oriental papaver, silene blossom in summer and the summer garden is decorated with round garlic inflorescence (Allium). Moisture-loving representatives may be found on the common Eurasian peat bog.
The most distant continent for us is often related to subtropical and tropical plants which can hardly be grown in greenhouse conditions. Some areas to the South (for example Tasmania or New Zealand) hosts unique flora which can be grown in our outdoor exposure under certain conditions. Dicksonia Antartica coming from Tasmania is the toughest tree fern in our summer. Acaena, the Rosaceae genus, plants with thorny fruit, came here from Chile.
We do not forget either European or Central European flora in the exposures represented by forest and moisture-loving plants which we find on peat bogs. In spring when the trees are not leafy, bulbous and tuberous species blossom and create spring aspect. In the small exposure called “Czech garden” other, mainly shadow-loving plants are planted, for example Dianthus carthusianorum or Lychnis viscaria.
Rock garden or “Alpinum” is trying to imitate real mountain biotopes in the wild by planting plants sometimes settling inhospitable environment. The plants have to cope with short growing seasons, excessive sun exposure and the shortage of moisture. The rock plants are planted on the rock lining the greenhouse (mainly the rock plants from Europe, Central Asia and North America) and the central lawn (mainly South Europe, Asia, China and North America). Not missing are endemic plants of a certain area (so called they do not grow anywhere else), as Greek Islands (Crete) or the mountain ranges (Caucasus). The most delicate rock plants are found in the new cool rock garden greenhouse.
Two exposures strongly related do not concentrate on introducing certain biotope but they are devoted to the plants with certain use. Near the Australian and New Zealander flora we will find a small corner with poisonous plans as digitalis, Atropa bella donna or Ricinus communis. Behind the administrative building and confectionery there is a so called herb garden representing the well-known and less known kinds of medicinal and useful plants.
The parking space is dominated by a back outdoor exposure with the plantings of various leafy and conifer bushes, hydrangeas and rhododendrons. The rose called ‘Gruß an Teplitz’, bred in the year 1897 by an Austro-Hungarian grower Rudolf Geschwind the name of which could be translated as „Hello Teplice“ is of interest. It is the only outdoor plant which has the spa town Teplice in its name.
Some genera include countless number of species and forms. We can view the collection of Hemerocallis, Helianthemum, Heuchera and geranium in our garden.
Regarding grown up trees the visitors may be taken by the most voluminous tree of the world – Sequiadendron giganteum which has very shallow bark protecting it against fires. Two examples of Gymnocladus dioica are almost 90 years old and are probably the oldest plants in the outdoor exposure. Gingko biloba is an ancient plant relative to conifers usable in medicinal products or cuisine or Liriodendron tulipifera the huge blossoms of which remind the blossoms of lily.